Empiricism the objective observation of the phenomena of interest.
Setting up a token system or token economy has several steps. This includes selecting the tokens, identifying the target behaviors, selecting backup reinforcers, establishing an exchange rate, writing the procedure and then doing a field test.
Teaching loosely involves randomly varying non critical aspects of the instructional setting within and across teaching sessions.
With bootleg reinforcement access to the specified reward or to other equally reinforcing items or events without meeting the response requirements of the contingency occurs.
In an indiscriminable contingency the learner cannot discriminate whether the next response will produce reinforcement. This can happen with intermittent schedules of reinforcement and delayed rewards.